Apostasy comes from the word meaning irtadda raja'a (back), so that when it is said irtadda 'an diinihi then it means that person has infidels after embracing Islam (see Mu'jamul Wasith, 1 / 338)
Actions which led to him infidel or apostate is referred to as riddah (apostasy).In terms of meaning riddah are: to be disbelieved after berislam.Allah ta'ala says,
ومن يرتدد منكم عن دينه فيمت وهو كافر فأولئك حبطت أعمالهم في الدنيا والآخرة وأولئك أصحاب النار هم فيها خالدون
"Whoever among you who is an apostate from his religion and then die as disbelievers, they are the ones who lost deeds in the world and the hereafter.And they are the dwellers of Hell.They are in it eternal. "(Surat al-Baqara: 217) (see At-Tawheed li Shaffits Tsaalits' Aliy, p. 32.)
Kind Of Riddah
1.Riddah with speech because
As an example utterance of God condemn ta'ala or His Messenger, it degrades the angel or one of his apostles.Or claiming to know magic, claiming to be prophet, who claimed to justify the Prophet.Or pray to besides Allah, beristighotsah to other than God in the affairs which occupied only God or ask for protection to other than Allah in such matters.
2.Riddah with deeds because
Like for example do prostrations to the sculpture, trees, stones or grave and slaughter of animals for diperembahkan him.Or throw Manuscripts in dirty places, do the exclusion of magic, learn magic or teach it.Or a ruling by the law of God and believe not skill.
3.Riddah with confidence because
As for example believes God has an ally, believe wine, adultery and usury as something that is kosher.Or believe the bread is forbidden.Or believe that prayer is not required and so forth.Or believe in prohibition of something that is clearly agreed halal status.Or believe halalness something that has been agreed keharamannya.
4.Riddah to cause doubt
As the obvious doubts his case in the religion, such as dubious shirk Prohibition, wine and adultery.Or doubt the truth of the message of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam or other Prophets.Or doubt the truth of the Prophet, or doubted the teachings of Islam.Or dubious compatibility of Islam to be applied today (see At-Tawheed li Shaffits Tsaalits' Aliy, p.. 32-33)
Laws Related to Persons Apostate
1.People who are apostate should be asked to repent before they were sentenced.If he wants to repent and return to Islam in a span of three days, then received and exempt from punishment.
2.If he refuses to repent then obliged to kill him.The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said, "Whoever changed his religion then kill him." (Narrated by Bukhari and Abu Dawud)
3.Apostasy hinder him to utilize his property in the timeframe he was asked to repent.If he repents then returned his property.If he does not want the treasure into the treasure fai 'which is applied to the Baitul Maal since he was sentenced to death or after death due to apostasy.And there is also a scholar who believes his property is given to the interests of the Muslims in general good.
4.Apostates are not entitled to inheritance from relatives, and also they can not inherit his wealth.
5.If he died or was killed because his body was sentenced to apostate then not washed, not disholati and not buried in the cemetery of the Muslims will be buried in the cemetery but the unbelievers in the grave or on any ground other than the Muslim cemetery (see At-Tawheed li Shaffits Tsaalits' Aliy , p.. 33)